How to write an abstract?
An abstract is a summary of the content of a document or part of it, including the basic factual information and conclusions necessary for the initial acquaintance with the document and determining the appropriateness of referring to it.
The essence of the abstract is a summary (with sufficient completeness) of the main content of the source. Writing abstracts is a process of analytical and synthetic processing of primary documents. Mainly scientific and technical literature is abstracted, which contains new information.
Types of abstracts :
1) informative (abstracts-notes) - contain in a generalized form all the main provisions of the primary document, illustrating the material, the most important argumentation, information about the research methodology, etc . ;
2) indicative (indicative, or abstracts-summary) - contain not all, but only those basic provisions that are closely related to the topic of the reviewed document; everything secondary is omitted.
According to the number of primary refereed documents, abstracts are subdivided into monographic (compiled by one document) and survey (compiled by several documents on one topic).
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An abstract of any kind consists of two parts:
1) bibliographic description , which provides background information about the original document. As a rule, the title of the document contained in the bibliographic description serves as the title of the abstract;
2) the text of the abstract , which includes the most essential, problematic information of the source document.
The text of the abstract includes the following information:
1) topic, problem, subject, goals and content of the primary document;
2) research methods (especially new ones);
3) research results;
4) the conclusions of the author (estimates, assumptions, accepted or refuted hypotheses);
5) ways of practical application of the results of the work.
If necessary, information is provided about the author, his works, tables, diagrams, drawings, formulas, graphs , etc.
Compositionally, the text of the abstract can consist of an introduction (introductory part), a main part (description) and a conclusion . The abstract text model can be as follows:
1) the introductory part of the abstract:
The article "...", published in the journal "..." No. ... for ... a year, discusses issues ( problems, ways , methods) ... The author of the article is a famous scientist ... The article is called (carries title ..., title ..., title ..., title .., published in ...)
The topic of the article is ... (Article on the topic ..., The article is devoted to the topic (problem, issue) ... ) ... The article is a generalization (presentation, description, analysis, review).
The article deals with ... (what?), (Says (what?), Considers (what?), Gives an assessment ( what?, What?), Analysis (what?), Presentation (what?).
The essence of the problem comes down to ... (what?), Consists (what?), Consists (what?).
2) main part:
The article is divided into ... part (s) ( consists of ... parts, begins (with what?), Ends (with what ?) ... ).
The introduction states ... (what?) (Defines ... (what?))
At the beginning of the article, the goal (goals, objectives) are determined (set out ) ...
The following is a general description of the problem (chapters, parts), research, article ...
In the article, the author raises ( touches on, covers) the following problems, (stops (on what?) Touches (what?) ...)
The main part sets out (what?), Provides argumentation (in favor of what? Against what?), Gives a generalization (what?) (Scientific description (what ?) ...
The article also touches on issues such as ...
The author gives (refers to) example (s) (facts, figures, data), confirming, illustrating its provisions ...
The article is given, given ...
The author comes to the conclusion (conclusion) that ... (brings us to ..., concludes, summarizes)
At the end of the article, the results are summarized (what?)
In conclusion, the author says that, (claims that) ...
In conclusion, it says that ... (about what?)
The essence of the above boils down to (next) ...
Requirements for the preparation of an abstract:
1) objectivity, accuracy of presentation; controversy with the author and the referent's assessments can be given in special “Referent's Notes”;
2) completeness (statement of all essential provisions);
3) use of uniform terminology and abbreviations;
4) simple, clear language;
5) logical composition of the abstract;
6) the volume of the abstract is determined by the content of the primary document; average size: 500 characters for notes and short articles, 1,000 characters for most articles, patents, 2,500-12,000 characters for large documents.
It is important to understand that not every student is able to fill out an abstract with so much information. This applies to many subjects, including history. If you are making an abstract on history but you see that it is difficult for you to find so much text on the topic - ask the specialists https://essayassistant.org/history-homework-help/ to find good sources of information on the topic for you .
Application. List of constructs for abstract presentation
The article under the title "...", published in the magazine "...", No. ... for ... year, sets out the views (problems, questions) ... The article (book, monograph) offered to the readers' attention is detailed (general) presentation of issues ... The article in question is devoted to the topic (problem, question ...) The article discusses issues that are important for ... The relevance of the problem under consideration, according to the author, is determined by the fact that ... Topic of the article (the issues discussed in the article) is of great interest ... The main topic of the article meets the tasks ... The choice of the topic of the article (research) is logical, not accidental ... At the beginning of the article, the author gives a justification for the relevance of the topic (problem, question, idea). .. Then a description of the goals and objectives of the study (article) is given. The article in question consists of two (three) parts. The author gives a definition (comparative description, review, analysis) ... Then the author dwells on such problems as (deals with the following problems, raises the question of what ...) ... The author dwells in detail on the history of occurrence (origin, appearance , formation) ... The author sets out the history in chronological order ... The author describes (briefly) in detail (classifies, characterizes) the facts ... The author proves the validity (refutes something) ... The author provides evidence of the validity of his point of view. Further, the article gives a number of examples to prove the (illustrative) is correct (Justice) ... This article provides a summary of ..., we are well-grounded evidence ... In conclusion the author says that ... The above (considered) in In the article, the questions (problems) are of interest not only for ..., but also for ... It should be noted (emphasized) that ... Of undoubted interest are the author's conclusions that ... The most important of the author's conclusions are the following. .. This is, firstly ..., secondly ..., thirdly ..., and finally ...